The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes. The heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest. In Humans, other mammals, and birds,Heart Treatment without Bypass Surgery, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles.Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart.Heart pumps 72 times / minute, it’s called ideal heart rate.
A heart attack is sometimes called a myocardial infarction (MI), acute myocardial infarction, coronary occlusion or coronary thrombosis .Our heart muscle needs oxygen to survive. A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or cut off completely. This happens because coronary arteries that supply the heart muscle with blood flow can slowly become narrow from a buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substances that together are called plaque. This slow process is known as atherosclerosis. When a plaque in a heart artery breaks, a blood clot forms around the plaque. This blood clot can block the blood flow through the heart muscle. When the heart muscle is starved for oxygen and nutrients, it is called ischemia. When damage or death of part of the heart muscle occurs as a result of ischemia, it is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI). About every 10 seconds, someone in India has a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
|Causative Factors||Usual-Cardiology Recommendation||SAAOL Recommendation|
|Serum Cholesterol||130 – 200 mg/dl||Less than 130mg/dl|
|Serum Triglycerides||60 – 160 mg/dl||Less than 100 mg/ dl|
|Serum HDL Cholesterol||30 – 60 mg/dl||More than 40 mg/dl|
|Cholesterol: HDL||4 – 5||Below-4|
|Serum LDL Cholesterol||30 – 130 mg/dl||Less than 70 mg / dl|
|Blood Pressure (systolic)||120 – 140 mmHg||120 mmHg or less|
|Blood Pressure (diastolic)||70 – 90 mmHg||80 mmHg or less|
|Blood Glucose (Fasting)||80 – 110 mg/dl||70-100 mgs %|
|Blood Glucose (PP)||120 – 160 mg/dl||Less than 140 mgs %|
|Smoking/Tobacco||To be reduced||Banned|
|Exercise/Walk||Should be done||Must do, at least one hour|
|Weight||20 – 30% extra (from any chart)||Only 2 – 3 Kg extra allowed permitted from Indian Chart|
|Fiber intake||Not specified||Plenty everyday|
|Stress||Not defined, Not available||Clearly defined, optimal|
|Total fat intake||10 – 30% Calories||10% of total Calories|
|Visible-fat intake||PUFA, MUFA etc.||Banned|
|Cholesterol intake/day||Not defined||10 mg/day|
- 2-D ECHO CARDIOGRAM
- CT-CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY
- STRESS / THALLIUM TEST
This is the basic test to detect heart disease and heart attack ECG is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. These electrodes detect the tiny electrical changes on the skin that arise from the heart muscle’s electrophysiologic pattern of depolarizing during each heartbeat. Changes in ECG occurs only when patient is in chest-pain (angina) or in heart-attack.
TMT (Treadmill Test)
In this, patient walks on treadmill and gradually increases the speed to produce pressure on heart. Patient’s vital parameters are recorded and monitored. The reaction to stress is produced either by exercise or drug stimulation. The stress test compares the circulation of blood in the heart when the patient is resting and when he is under optimum physical pressure. Doctor’s analyses test reports.
2-D ECHO CARDIOGRAM
An echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart. Echocardiography uses standard two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and Doppler ultrasound to create images of the heart. Echocardiography has become routinely used in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with any suspected or known heart diseases. It is one of the most widely used diagnostic tests in cardiology. It can provide a wealth of helpful information, including the size and shape of the heart (internal chamber size quantification), pumping capacity, and the location and extent of any tissue damage. An echocardiogram can also give physicians other estimates of heart function, such as a calculation of the cardiac output, ejection fraction, and diastolic function (how well the heart relaxes). Echocardiography can help detect cardiomyopathies.
Know Your Heart without any Invasion.
Cardiac computed tomography, or cardiac CT, is a painless test that uses an x-ray machine to take clear, detailed pictures of the heart. This common test is used to look for problems in the heart.
Cardiac CT is a common test for finding and/or evaluating:
- Coronary Heart Disease(CHD).
- Problems with heart function and heart valves.
- Pulmonary Embolism (PE).
- Problems in the pulmonary veins.
- Pericardial disease.
What to Expect Before Cardiac CT?
Your doctor will tell you how to prepare for the cardiac CT scan. People usually are asked to avoid drinks that contain caffeine before the test. Normally, you’re allowed to drink water, but you’re asked not to eat for 4 hours before the scan. If you take medicine for diabetes, talk with your doctor about whether you’ll need to change how you take it on the day of your cardiac CT scan.
The CT scanner is a large machine that has a hollow, circular tube in the middle. You will lie on your back on a sliding table. The table can move up and down, and it goes inside the tunnel-like machine. The table will slowly slide into the opening in the machine. Inside the scanner, an x-ray tube moves around your body to take pictures of different parts of your heart. A computer will put the pictures together to make a three-dimensional (3D) picture of the whole heart. A cardiac CT scan usually takes about 10 – 15 minutes to complete.
What to Expect After Cardiac CT?
After the cardiac CT scan is done, you’ll be able to return to your normal activities. You will get the reports along with X-Rays and CD after 4 -5 hours or on next day.
CT Coronary Angiography is available in 64, 128, 256, 500 and 1000 slices, it is latest cost effective alternate of Traditional angiography.
Stress-Thallium Test (Nuclear Stress Test)
A nuclear stress test measures blood flow to your heart at rest and while your heart is working harder as a result of exertion or medication. The test provides images that can show areas of low blood flow through the heart and damaged heart muscle.
The test usually involves taking two sets of images of your heart — one while you’re at rest and another after you heart is stressed, either by exercise or medication.
You may be given a nuclear stress test, which involves injecting a radioactive dye into your bloodstream, if your doctor suspects you have coronary artery disease or if a routine stress test didn’t pinpoint the cause of symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath. A nuclear stress test may also be used to guide your treatment if you’ve been diagnosed with a heart condition.
Why stress test :-
- if doctor suspect your heart isn’t getting enough blood flow (oxygen) when it’s under stress (exercise)
- if you have chest pain or worsening angina
- if you’ve had a previous heart attack
- to check how well medications are working
- to determine whether or not a procedure or surgery was successful
- to determine if your heart is healthy enough to start an exercise program
The thallium stress test show:
- the size of the heart chambers
- how effectively the heart pumps (ventricular function)
- how well the coronary arteries supply the heart with blood (myocardial perfusion)
- if the heart muscle is damaged or scarred from previous heart attacks